AR-402(ag) / 12 crédits

Enseignant(s): Fröhlich Anja, Fröhlich Martin

Langue: Français/Anglais

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«Tackle the type - PARKING» traite de manière critique les processus de développement et de refonte des typologies architecturales dans un contexte contemporain. A partir de l'analyse d'une typologie architecturale précise, des projets indépendants doivent être développés dans un lieu spécifique



The studio approach is based on typology as the science of specific orders, classifications, uses and forms of building types. It understands typology not as a given, but as a process. While for a long time the thesis of the slow evolution of types was considered important, today building substance and ideas of use collide. The process of type formation is therefore less comparable to an evolutionary optimisation process than to a reinterpretation of the existing.

Technical developments have increasingly influenced architecture, especially since the industrial revolution. Currently, we are facing a transformation through rapid changes in physical and virtual mobility. They drastically determine the appearance and functioning of buildings and cities. Both trends allow building types to become obsolete or challenge us to look for new architectural solutions.

It is clear that today neither the flâneur of Baudelaire nor the motorists of the urban planning models of Le Corbusier, Tony Garnier, Ernst May or Ludwig Hilbersheimer determine the cityscape. The 20-minute city, in which all daily needs from work to shopping to leisure are quickly and easily accessible through mobility, also seems utopian.

How does mobility in the post-oil age influence architecture? How do we continue to use building typologies such as multi-storage car parks? How do we rethink such a parking garage typology and adapt it to future vehicle conventions? Or how can we alter its function and give their specific, inherent structure and logic an alternative use?

Takle the Type will not only speculate on types, but also pay special attention to the reuse and reinterpretation of existing structures, as these contribute in particular to the sustainable goals of any city. The studio will explore different actors such as the digital nomad as inhabitants of the new city and whether buildings can be built more "mobile", enriching or connecting with other uses. We are convinced that the issue of mobility and the definition and nature of the connection between people and places can lead to new adaptable and relevant architectural solutions


By the end of the course, the students must be able to:


collecting data on a territory

analyse its context and the given existing data

research and apply different adequate typologies.

develop independently a consistent architectural project.

explain a design concept and its theoretical framework.

generate and integrate new functions;

compare, research and apply different adequate typologies.

create spatial and tactile atmospheres.

explain a design concept and its theoretical framework.

present a project in an adequate and clear manner using various means of presentation

summaries an article or an technical report




Ramp Revolution

The Evolution and Potential of Parking Garages

Parking garages, often viewed as utilitarian structures in urban landscapes, have evolved into architectural phenomena that elicit a variety of interpretations. For many, these structures represent the skeletal remnants of potential buildings, as noted by architect Paul Rudolph, who once declared that "most parking garages are merely skeletal structures which didn't get any walls. They are just office building structures with the glass left out." This perspective underscores the raw, unfinished appeal of these structures and emphasizes their adaptability and open nature.

For urban dwellers, parking terminals often become familiar landmarks, guiding them through the urban maze. Yet, to the occasional visitor, these monolithic structures can appear as an urban space of strange and grotesque quality.

The progression of parking garages is an intricate balance between architectural ingenuity and societal needs. Initially conceptualized to accommodate the surge of personal automobiles in urban environments, their design has witnessed various transformations. As urban areas flourished and the value of land skyrocketed, these structures evolved, not just in height but in functionality. Today, innovations such as automated parking systems, multi-purpose spaces, and energy-efficient designs are redefining the boundaries of what a parking garage can be. With cities becoming more complex entities, the architectural and functional aspects of these terminals have had to adapt, ensuring they remain relevant in a rapidly changing urban landscape.

Two obvious features emerge when examining the history and architectural significance of parking garages. Firstly, their adaptive nature. Many contemporary cities are exploring the potential of these structures beyond mere vehicle storage, underlining Edmund Burke's impression of garages as strange places that are open to ''spiritual interpretation." Parking garages are being repurposed into urban farms, housing units, and even cultural spaces. This shift aligns with the sustainable urban development goals of reducing land wastage and promoting adaptive reuse. An iconic example would be the transformation of a parking garage in Miami into an upscale retail space, seamlessly blending commerce and car park.

The second observation is their intrinsic relationship with urban mobility patterns. As cities grapple with the challenges of pollution, traffic congestion, and the need for sustainable transport, the future of parking garages becomes uncertain. Will they be redundant in an era of autonomous vehicles and enhanced public transportation? Or will they metamorphose into something entirely unforeseen? This is reminiscent of last semester's Filling Station's conundrum in a post-fossil fuel era.

The legacy of parking garages is undeniably linked to our automobile-centric urban history. Their robust concrete frames, spiral ramps, and the rhythmic pattern of parked cars are imprints of a city's relationship with its vehicles. Yet, as urban mobility is on the brink of a revolution, architects and urban planners are reimagining these structures. It's not just about where cars will be parked, but how these spaces can be integrated into the urban fabric.

As we stand at this architectural crossroad, it's imperative to reflect on the design elements and principles that have shaped parking garages. Which of these elements deserve preservation?

The parking garage is more than a mere storage space for vehicles; it's a testament to our urban evolution. As we navigate the challenges of the 21st century, these structures bear an enorm spatial potential in re-shaping sustainable and resilient urban landscapes.




Territorial Data and Analyse

Typology and Adaptation

Tradition and Modernity

Image and Reference

Complexity and Logistics

Large Scale and Small Scale

Location and Context

Acquis de formation

A la fin de ce cours l'étudiant doit être capable de:

  • Catégoriser
  • Comparer
  • Evaluer
  • Formuler une hypothèse
  • Visualiser

Méthode d'enseignement

The course is subdivided into two main parts: i) in class supported student-led research and ii) a design project exercise.

Group work, individual work, lectures, studio work, round table discussions, study trip, intermediate review and final review with guest critics.

Travail attendu

Students are expected to actively participate to the course. Each student will choose an own focus on mobility linked typ. All the collected research will be stored and shared between the students in an online platform. During the semester each student will cross-reference his findings with the others and develop a new sustainable/critical strategy tackling the architectonical form and function of mobility in an own design project.

Studio work, team work between 2, analysis of the territory, development of a program, presentation of the project by means of drawings, visualisations, oral presentations and models ranging from 1:20 000 to 1:10 scale, practical and manual skills.v

Méthode d'évaluation

20% collection of data and their critical evaluation

20% observation, documentation and analyse of the selected urban territory and type

20% formulate a design project

20% visualisation the design project

20% defend the concept in front of juries


Office hours Oui
Assistants Oui
Forum électronique Oui



will be provided with a reader in feb 2024


Dans les plans d'études

  • Semestre: Printemps
  • Forme de l'examen: Pendant le semestre (session d'été)
  • Matière examinée: Théorie et critique du projet MA2 (Fröhlich M. & A.)
  • Cours: 2 Heure(s) hebdo x 14 semaines
  • Projet: 4 Heure(s) hebdo x 14 semaines
  • Type: obligatoire
  • Semestre: Printemps
  • Forme de l'examen: Pendant le semestre (session d'été)
  • Matière examinée: Théorie et critique du projet MA2 (Fröhlich M. & A.)
  • Cours: 2 Heure(s) hebdo x 14 semaines
  • Projet: 4 Heure(s) hebdo x 14 semaines
  • Type: obligatoire
  • Semestre: Printemps
  • Forme de l'examen: Pendant le semestre (session d'été)
  • Matière examinée: Théorie et critique du projet MA2 (Fröhlich M. & A.)
  • Cours: 2 Heure(s) hebdo x 14 semaines
  • Projet: 4 Heure(s) hebdo x 14 semaines
  • Type: optionnel

Semaine de référence

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