# Coursebooks

## Metrology

#### Lecturer(s) :

Bruschini Claudio
Charbon Edoardo
Fantner Georg
Vardi Ilan

English

#### Summary

Course introduces the concept of measurement in electrical, optical, and microscale domains, dealing with accuracy, and resolution. Weâll introduce techniques to handle intrinsic and extrinsic limitations of the measurement in these domains. Course ends with a quantum perspective.

#### Content

The topics covered by the course are summarized as follows:
'    Deconstruction class (W 1.1)
Classical metrology, current definitions (kg, C, A, V), Système International (W 1.2)
HW Series 1 (W 1.3)
'    Basic statistics: random variables, random processes, probability distribution functions, moments, statistical independence, correlation, wide-sense stationary processes, ergodicity, Gaussian and Poisson processes, Central Limit Theorem, time series analysis, elements of estimation theory. Concepts of accuracy, precision, and resolution of a measurement
(W 2 ' W 3)
HW Series 2, 3 (W 2.3, W 3.3)
'    Electrical metrology: currents, voltages, charges, noise sources (1/f, RTS, shot, thermal, KT/C), averaging techniques, accuracy, precision, error estimation, time estimation. Tools for electrical metrology (lock-in, PLL, DLL, network analyser, etc.).
(W 4 ' W 5 ' W 6.1)
HW Series 4, 5 (W 4.3, W 5.3)
'    Time
(W 6.2 ' W 7.1)
HW Series 6  (W 6.3)
'    Optical metrology: photons & wavelengths, intensity, photon flux, image sensor parameters (optical gain, quantum efficiency, PRNU, etc.). Tools for optical metrology. Optical system evaluation (aberration, concentration factors, refraction, diffraction, vignetting, Abbe's limit).
(W 7.2-W 8-W 9)
HW Series 7, 8, 9 (W 7.3, W 8.3, W 9.3)
'    Microscale metrology: SPM/AFM, SEM, interferometry, measurement of micro/nanoscale forces and distances, nanomechanical properties, fundamental issues of nanomechanical metrology instruments.
(W 10 ' W 11)
HW Series 10, 11 (W 10.3, W 11.3)
'    Redefinition of SI, METAS.
(W 12)
'    Quantum perspective: the f-U-I triangle, measuring randomness, photon counting, single-electron detection, qubit metrology, micro-temperature measurements and cryogenic limits.
(W 13 ' W 14)
HW Series 12, 13 (W 13.3, W 14.3)

#### Keywords

Accuracy, precision, resolution, reproducibility, reliability, fidelity of the measurement

#### Learning Prerequisites

##### Required courses

Basic mathematics/physics

##### Recommended courses

Design of experiments

#### Learning Outcomes

By the end of the course, the student must be able to:
• Develop measurement setups that yield reproducible results
• Analyze the accuracy and precision of a measurement for a certain resolution
• Interpret the quality of data from measurements

#### Assessment methods

Self-assessment (ungraded homework, exercise session presence verified); final exam during exam sessions.

#### Resources

##### Notes/Handbook

Specialized labs, references TBD.

### Reference week

MoTuWeThFr
8-9
9-10ELA2
10-11
11-12
12-13
13-14
14-15
15-16
16-17
17-18
18-19
19-20
20-21
21-22

Lecture
Exercise, TP
Project, other

### legend

• Autumn semester
• Winter sessions
• Spring semester
• Summer sessions
• Lecture in French
• Lecture in English
• Lecture in German