The course covers the production of ceramics and colloids from the basic scientific concepts and theories needed to understand the forming processes to the mechanisms and methods of sintering (firing) ceramics. Including the scientific principles behind the formation of colloidal dispersions.
1.Powder synthesis and Characterization
- Thermodynamics of solutions: ideal solutions, high ionic strength, complexation.
- Nature and preparation of raw ceramic materials (natural and synthetic).
- Production routes for synthetic ceramic powders. Precipitation, gas phase synthesis and solid-state reactions.
- Powder characterization, physical, chemical and morphological properties with reference to underlying theory. Including particle size measurement, specific surfaces area, porosity and morphology.
2. Milling and classification.
- Crushing, Ball milling, high energy milling. Modelling of milling. Sieves and air classifiers
3. Powder processing (dispersion, forming, drying)
- Thermodynamics of surfaces and interfaces: surface tension, adhesion and cohesion, wettability, capillary condensation.
- Adsorption at interfaces: solid/liquid, liquid/liquid, solid/gas and liquid/gas.
- Intermolecular interactions: electrostatic, dispersion and van der Waals forces; interaction energy and entropy.
- Distribution of ions in solution: influence of a charged interface.
- Interactions between colloidal particles; colloidal stability: the DLVO model. Kinetics of agglomeration.
- Polymers in solution: solubility, conformation, adsorption at interfaces, steric stabilisation of colloidal particles.
- Ceramic forming : pressing, tape cassting, slip casting, injection moulding and others
- Drying and binder burnout
4. Surfactants, micelles and micellar solutions.
- Origin and phenomenology, Kinetics, Microstructural control.
- Solid-state and liquide phase sintering
6. Thin and thick ceramic films
- Synthesis of colloidal sols : dispersion, precipitation
- Manufacturing methods, dip-coating, plasma spraying.
1. Milling, granulometry, spray drying, flowability of powders, classification
2. Forming methods - dry pressing, dispersion + slip casting, analysis of compaction
3. Sintering, density and microstructures, modelling of sintering
Ceramics, colloids, forming, interparticle interactions, sintering, powder characterisation, processing, steric stabilization, adsorption, powder synthesis.
General inorganic chemistry;
Introduction to materials;
Thermodynamics for materials science
Important concepts to start the course
chemical bonds; phase transitions;thermodynamics; microstructure of materials; statistics, tranfer phenomena
By the end of the course, the student must be able to:
- Apply The acquired notions of the dispersion of particulate matter for any application.
- Produce Acquired the knowledge, skills and practice necessary to produce a ceramic in an industrial environment or a laboratory
- Choose to produce a ceramic of a particular geometry in connection with an application.
- Demonstrate the colloidal stability of a suspension using the DLVO theory.
- Describe the key characteristics of a ceramic powder needed to make a ceramic
- Explain the mechanisms behind the different sintering phenomena.
- Describe the different methods of synthesizing a ceramic powder.
- Use both general and domain specific IT resources and tools
- Write a scientific or technical report.
- Take responsibility for health and safety of self and others in a working context.
- Negotiate effectively within the group.
Lectures and exercises in class (3 h) and laboratory work (1 h)
Expected student activities
Attendance of lectures, doing exercises during class and at home, reading written material, discussion in class, doing experimental exercises, writing reports on experimental work and analyzing results
The final grade is attributed based on the final oral exam 75% and the practical class reports 25%.
The Colloidal Domain: where physics, chemistry, biology, and technology meet. D. F. Evans and H. Wennerström. Wiley-VCM, New York, Year:1999. ISBN:0-471-24247-0
CERAMIC PROCESSING AND SINTERING M. N. Rahaman Taylor & Francis, London, 2003 0: ISBN - 10-8247-0988-8
Traité des Matériaux, vol 16, Céramiques et Verres, Principes et techniques d'élaboration, J-M Haussonne, C.P.Carry, P. Bowen, J. Barton, Press Polytechnique et Universitaires Romandes2005
Ressources en bibliothèque
- The Colloidal Domain: where physics, chemistry, biology, and technology meet/ Evans
- Principles of Ceramics Processing / Stalford
- Ceramic Processing and Sintering / Rahaman
- Céramiques et verres : principes et techniques d'élaboration / Haussone
- Fundamentals of ceramic powder processing and synthesis / Ring T.A.
Copy of slides presented during lectures; Wriiten text based on lectures; Text for each TP;
In the programs
- Semester: Fall
- Exam form: Oral (winter session)
- Subject examined: Ceramic and colloidal processing + Laboratory work
- Lecture: 3 Hour(s) per week x 14 weeks
- Practical work: 1 Hour(s) per week x 14 weeks